Applications of Solar Cell | EREE | BGSBU

• Concentrating Solar Power (CSP): Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are utility-scale generators that produce electricity using mirrors or lenses to efficiently concentrate the sun’s energy. The four principal CSP technologies are parabolic troughs, dish-Stirling engine systems, central receivers, and concentrating photovoltaic systems (CPV).

• Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants: Solar thermal energy involves harnessing solar power for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. Solar thermal collectors, such as solar hot water panels, are commonly used to generate solar hot water for domestic and light industrial applications. This energy system is also used in architecture and building design to control heating and ventilation in both active solar and passive solar designs.

• Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic or PV technology employs solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert energy from the sun into electricity. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from the sun’s rays, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge batteries. Many pocket calculators incorporate a single solar cell, but for larger applications, cells are generally grouped together to form PV modules that are in turn arranged in solar arrays. Solar arrays can be used to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, and in remote areas as a source of power for roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, and cathodic protection of pipelines.

• Solar Heating Systems: Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. The systems are composed of solar thermal collectors and a storage tank, and they may be active, passive or batch systems.

• Passive Solar Energy: It concerns building design to maintain its environment at a comfortable temperature through the sun’s daily and annual cycles. It can be done by (1) Direct gain or the positioning of windows, skylights, and shutters to control the amount of direct solar radiation reaching the interior and warming the air and surfaces within a building; (2) Indirect gain in which solar radiation is captured by a part of the building envelope and then transmitted indirectly to the building through conduction and convection; and (3) Isolated gain which involves passively capturing solar heat and then moving it passively into or out of the building via a liquid or air directly or using a thermal store. Sun-spaces, greenhouses, and solar closets are alternative ways of capturing isolated heat gain from which warmed air can be taken.

• Solar Lighting: Also known as day-lighting, this is the use of natural light to provide illumination to offset energy use in electric lighting systems and reduce the cooling load on HVAC systems. Day-lighting features include building orientation, window orientation, exterior shading, saw tooth roofs, clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights, and light tubes. Architectural trends increasingly recognize day-lighting as a cornerstone of sustainable design.

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